This guide, written by Susan Therriault, Ed.D. and Ariel Krivoshey of American Institutes for Research provides a review of research on higher education persistence indicators that can be used to predict whether a student will remain enrolled in college and complete a two- or four-year degree. A variety of factors at the personal, academic, and institutional levels affect the persistence of an individual student. In spite of these many factors, signs of risk that a student will not complete a degree can be detected early on. These indicators may be tracked by institutions of higher education to improve completion rates. The guide was originally developed for the Massachusetts Executive Office of Education but has been adapted for many states.